In this guide, we will explore functional testing in-depth, discussing its importance, methods, and best practices. Whether you're a beginner in software development or an experienced QA professional, this guide will provide you with the knowledge you need to master functional testing.
Introduction: What is Functional Testing in QA?
Functional testing is a type of testing that is aimed at determining if each application feature works according to the software requirements. Each feature is compared with the corresponding requirement to determine if its output is consistent with the expectations of the end-user. Testing is done by providing sample inputs, capturing the resulting outputs, and verifying that the actual outputs are the same as the expected outputs.
Why is Functional Testing Necessary?
- From the user's perspective, it ensures that the system implementation meets the requirements.
- As it is a black-box testing, testers are unaware of the internal implementation of the application, they can identify problems that developers may have missed and find areas that have been overlooked.
- Certain specific issues may be tested, such as improper operation, running the application not in accordance with the established procedures, and checking for vulnerabilities in the application.
What is functional testing in QA? Therefore, we can conclude that Functional Testing = Checking the implementation of requirements + Identifying missing feature implementations + Checking for vulnerabilities in the application.
How to Perform Functional Testing?
The six steps of functional testing are:
- Requirements analysts write expected functionality based on the requirements.
- Test engineers write test cases based on the expected functionality provided by the requirements analyst.
- Test engineers prepare the necessary data related to the expected results provided by the requirements analyst, including the required data for testing.
- Test engineers execute the test cases based on the test cases created.
- Test engineers check if the actual results match the expected results and provide a report.
- Requirements analysts judge whether an application meets the user's needs based on the report provided by the test engineer.
Two Types of Functional Testing Methods:
- Manual Testing: Test engineers operate the application manually based on the test cases. It has high flexibility and takes less time, but if multiple tests are required for the same function, it can cause test time to be extended, and accuracy may not be high, leading to low consistency of test results. It is suitable for some small functions or simple operation test cases.
- Automated Testing: Test engineers write automated test cases, which replace manual testing with computers. It reduces flexibility, but it greatly improves testing efficiency for functions that require multiple testing, reduces repetitive operations, and ensures consistency in multiple tests. It is suitable for complex test cases that require repeated testing and complex operations.
Automated functional testing can be run around the clock without human intervention, greatly speeding up the entire testing process. Secondly, it helps to avoid human errors and skipping tests. Thirdly, they can be rerun as needed. Finally, it is cost-effective in the long run.
To ensure the effectiveness of automated functional testing, the following aspects must be considered:
• Selecting the appropriate automation tools: Create a requirement list and expected features and choose an automation tool based on them. Try WeTest's APP Functional Testing, which provides the most professional services and in-depth reports, quickly providing detailed functional testing reports.
• Automate appropriate test cases: You should carefully choose test cases for automation. First, consider frequent repetitive tests, high-priority test cases, time-consuming test cases, and test cases that must run in different browsers and environments.
• Run frequent tests: Once the basic automated test suite is ready, it is recommended to conduct frequent tests. This way, you can improve your automation framework and detect more errors.
• Continuously maintain automation scripts: Continuously maintaining scripts based on application development and updates is important to avoid test failures and trouble.