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All You Should Know About Functional Testing

For today's discussion, we'll concentrate on functional testing. Read further to gain more insights into quality assurance for your product and its nuances. This information can be valuable when determining which type of QA inspection is most suitable for your needs.

In modern times, the quality of a product is a key factor that sets it apart from others. It influences the decisions made by consumers and has an impact on business profitability. An application that constantly crashes or a website where users are unable to scroll down is unappealing to anyone.

However, software testing comes into play, playing a critical role in enhancing the system's quality, performance, and reliability. The type of testing required for a specific digital product varies depending on several factors, such as project requirements, budget, and timeline.

For today's discussion, we'll concentrate on functional testing. Read further to gain more insights into quality assurance for your product and its nuances. This information can be valuable when determining which type of QA inspection is most suitable for your needs.

What exactly is functional testing?

The simplest method to consider functional testing is to ask: "Is it functioning correctly?" It's a vast category of testing that aims to verify that a product fulfills a particular set of business functions. To assess software features, quality assurance experts evaluate each feature against its corresponding requirement to ensure that the output aligns with the expectations of the end user. For example, when a new user signs up for a service, a confirmation email being received could be seen as an anticipated output.

Functional testing determines if the features are working according to their intended purpose, whether the end-user can interact with all necessary components, what happens in the event of errors, and whether there are effective, error logging methods and messaging in place. If your web or mobile app is unable to accomplish its main responsibilities, no amount of great design or speed will please consumers. Therefore, after functional testing, you should have software that boasts a consistent API, a cohesive user interface, and integrated business processes.

 

Functional and non-functional

Typically, functional testing is done before non-functional testing. So what's the difference between these two types of testing? Functional testing concentrates on product characteristics, while non-functional testing centers on user expectations. The latter measures how the product behaves and its attributes, such as accessibility, reliability, and performance. For example, a non-functional requirement might be making sure that any changes made in a database are visible to all users within three seconds.

To provide greater clarity, let's use a login function as an example. To conduct functional testing, QA engineers would devise test cases to validate whether users can (or cannot) login when inputting correct or incorrect data. These tests help ensure that the function fulfills the user's needs. In contrast, for non-functional testing, QA specialists would execute performance tests to see if the system satisfies user expectations as a whole. Both kinds of testing are crucial, and performing both will lead to greater test coverage and higher product quality.

Positive and negative test cases

When it comes to functional testing, the main objective is to ensure that an app or website adheres to specific business requirements or scenarios. This is accomplished using positive and negative test cases.

To understand this better, let's revisit the login feature. Let's assume the app has password safety requirements such as having at least six characters, at least one capital letter, and at least one number. Positive test cases evaluate whether the system successfully handles expected input. For example, creating a password such as "Pa55word" and seeing if it is accepted by the app would pass a positive test case.

Negative test cases assess how the system deals with unexpected or invalid data, which does not meet the specifications. For example, attempting to create a new user with a password such as "12345678" and verifying that the app fails to register that user would pass a negative test case. In essence, positive test cases check whether the system behaves correctly when given valid data while negative test cases ensure that the system behaves appropriately when presented with invalid or unexpected data.

What makes these tests so important for your product?

In the realm of software testing, functional tests offer immense advantages to the development process. As software development is both arduous and costly, it's crucial to determine which areas require testing, how much testing is needed, and the most effective methods for testing. It's impossible to create a bug-free system, but we can take steps to mitigate any potential errors. Thus, conducting positive and negative functional tests is fundamental to achieving this goal.

The benefits of functional testing

Customer Satisfaction

One of the most significant benefits of functional testing is increased customer satisfaction. By thoroughly testing a software application from an end-user perspective, QA specialists can identify potential issues or areas for improvement and provide recommendations accordingly. This leads to a higher-quality product that better meets user expectations, ultimately resulting in greater customer satisfaction.

Testing Efficiency

Functional testing also helps to increase testing efficiency. When requirements are well-defined and tests are properly designed, software testers can quickly and accurately determine whether the system passes or fails. This leads to quicker and more accurate results, facilitating efficient testing processes.

Improved Documentation

Functional testing can also inform project documentation and processes, leading to more systematic and well-organized development practices. QA specialists can provide recommendations on how to create or arrange project documentation, ensuring that it is concise, comprehensive, and easy to understand.

Reduced Risk

Another significant benefit of functional testing is the ability to identify and fix bugs before release. By conducting thorough and effective functional testing, businesses can reduce the risk of critical bugs appearing in the production. This prevents costly rework and minimizes the chances of customer dissatisfaction or damage to a company's reputation.

Common functional bugs and their impact on user experience

Functional bugs are a common issue in software development, and they can have a significant impact on user experience. Let's explore some examples of functional bugs that users commonly encounter and how they can affect the success of a software application.

Syncing and Navigation Issues

One of the most frustrating functional bugs is related to syncing and navigation. Users expect their progress to be saved automatically, and they want to be able to easily resume where they left off. However, if an app or website fails to sync correctly or remember previous progress, it can lead to user frustration and decreased engagement. This bug can be especially problematic for e-learning platforms and other applications that involve ongoing learning or progress tracking.

Calculation Malfunctions

Another type of functional bug that can harm user experience is related to calculations. In fitness or health-related apps, users rely on accurate tracking of metrics like calories burned, workout time, or heart rate. If these calculations malfunction, users may become frustrated with the app and lose trust in its accuracy. Thus, it is vital to ensure that all calculations are thoroughly tested and functioning correctly.

Payment Gateway Glitches

Issues related to payment gateways can also be detrimental to user experience. For example, if a user purchases gated content but do not receive access or their card is charged incorrectly, it can damage a company's reputation and result in lost customers. Correctly testing and implementing payment gateways is crucial to ensure smooth transactions and maintain customer trust.

Impact on User Experience

Functional bugs can have a severe impact on user experience. Depending on the severity and frequency of bugs encountered, users may become frustrated, lose trust in the application, and ultimately abandon it. This can cause damage to a company's reputation and lead to lost revenue. The importance of thorough functional testing cannot be overstated, as it is essential to ensuring a high-quality product that meets user expectations.

When to start functional testing?

functional testing is an essential part of software development, and it's important to start testing as early as possible in the development lifecycle. Starting functional testing early in the software development lifecycle is essential for preventing bugs from impacting your product, saving costs, improving the user experience, and increasing revenue. By catching and fixing bugs early, you can ensure that your product functions as intended and meets the needs of its users.

Overcome the Challenges of Functional Testing with WeTest

Functional testing is a vital component of ensuring that your application meets the requirements of end-users and clients. At WeTest, we understand the importance of functional testing and have developed comprehensive solutions to help you overcome the challenges associated with this process.

We offer use cases that are designed and executed by experienced test specialists, covering all function points, including specific business processes and industry-specific use cases. With WeTest APP Functional Testing, you get access to experts who provide customized case design and implementation services tailored to meet your unique needs. We also provide customized use cases covering mainstream business processes and industry common use cases.

To Sum Up

Functional testing is crucial for ensuring that your product meets all of its requirements. Regularly testing the functionality of your product guarantees that it can be used by customers as it was designed to be used. Functional testing confirms that the various features of the product perform by predetermined requirements, highlighting any areas where the performance may fall short of expected results.

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